By Julia Marshall, Lizzy Trimble, and Maddy Clapp

Key Facts:
  • Begun in April 1915
  • The war is remembered by marking the first use of gas in warfare.
  • Tear gas had been used in other battles but Germany was the first to use chlorine gas at a large scale in the war
  • Deaths during Second Battle of Ypres are estimated at 69,000 allied troops (59,000 British and 10,000 French) against 35,000 German troops. strategies_map.gif
  • The war ended May 25th 1915

Key Players:
  • Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien (1858-1930) -Britain
  • Sir John Denton Pinksron French (1852- 1925) -Britain
  • Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer (1857-1932) -Britain
  • Ferdinand Foch (1851-1929) - France
  • Erich Georg Anton Sebastion von Falkenhayn (1861-1922) -Germany

Stategies:
  • Germany followed the "east-first" approach
  • Chief of General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn started to plan the operation against Ypres to begin in April. He had wanted to divert Allied attention from troop movements east to secure a better position in Flanders and to test the new weapon: poison gas
  • In preperation for the war, Germans moved 5,730 90lb canisters of chlorine gas to the front opposite of Gravenstafel Ridge
  • British developed new tactics from gas attacks such as shelling behind the cloud to strike at German infantry when they released the gas (from this the Germans were only able to advance 2,000 yards in 6 days)

Map of Ypres:
map.gif
Map of Ypres
Stategies Map

Outcome:

The Second Battle of Ypres ended of May 25, 1915. This battle lead to many casualties for both Britain, Germany, and France. Germany's casualties were close to 35,000, France was near 10,000, and Britain 59,000. 6,000 Canadiens were part of the 59,000 wounded in the British military.

Significance:
  • Marked the first use of poison gas by the Germans.
  • The Battle of Ypres was the most successful German attack in France in 1915.
  • This battle wass the only major attack that was launched by the Germans in 1915.
  • The Allie's casualties 65,000 while the Germans only lost 35,000.
342px-In_Flanders_Fields_and_other_poems_page_3.png

In Flanders Fields

In Flanders Fields is known as the most famous poem written during World War I. It was written by Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae. He was a doctor during the battle, and was horrified by all of the injuries and death. One patient he cared for, but wasn't able to save, really made an impact on him. An old friend from back home came to him dying. Later that day, McCrae had a ceremony in a cemetery just outside of his dressing station. The next day, he wanted to let out his anger by writing this poem.

The Second Battle of Ypres, 22 April to 25 May 1915
This was a painting done by war artist, Richard Jack. It was comissioned by Canadian War Memorials Fund and was done to document Canada's war effort. At first people thought that this painting would not resonate with the Canadians because they did not think that they would like to see such a real dipiction of the war, but it became an iconic piece of art in WWI.

external image Richard%2BJack%2B-%2BThe%2BSecond%2BBattle%2Bof%2BYpres%252C%2B22%2BApril%2Bto%2B25%2BMay%2B1915.jpg

Small Picture/Music Presentation on The Second Battle of Ypres




Tourism
  1. You can cycle the Ypres salient, stopping at each of the four battlefields of the Ypres and touring the city.A Tour of Ypres
  2. You may also want to tour the battlefields with Somme Battlefield Tours Ltd, where you can tour at your own pace with their self drive tours. If you arent from the UK, they will gladly arrange you with a hotel.

Historical Landmarks/monuments
  • The Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing is one of the most famous memorials on the WWI battlefields on the Western Front,which holds the names of 54,389 who fell in Ypres and have no known grave.
More Information on the Menin Memorial

  • The Ypres Reservoir Cemetery holds 2,613 servicemen of which only 1,579 of the graves having names on them. The cemetary was designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield.








  • The Lille Gate is the entrance into the city of Ypres and is the only entrance into the city that surived WWI.

A picture of the gate today.
A picture of the gate today.






Citations:

Patterson, Michael Robert. "In Flanders Field, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae." Arlington National Cemetery Website. N.p., 1 Jan. 2012. Web. 4 Feb. 2012. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/flanders.htm.

Legg, Joanna, Graham Parker, and Legg,David. "The Second Battle of Ypres, 1915." The Great War. N.p., 2009. Web. 4 Feb. 2012. http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/index.htm.

van Hartesveldt, Fred R. "Second Battle of Ypres: World War I." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society.ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 5 Feb. 2012.

Legg, Joanna, Graham Parker, and Legg, David. "The Menin Gate,Ypres,Belgium".The Great War. n.p. 2009.Web. 4 February 2012.
http://www.greatwar.co.uk/ypres-salient/memorial-menin-gate.htm

Legg, Joanna, Graham Parker, and Legg, David. "Ypres Reservoir Cemetery, Ieper-Belgium".The Great War. n.p. 2009.Web. 4 February 2012.
http://www.greatwar.co.uk/ypres-salient/cemetery-ypres-reservoir.htm

Legg, Joanna, Graham Parker, and Legg, David. "The Lille Gate (Rijselpoort), Ieper (Ypres)".The Great War. n.p. 2009.Web. 4 February 2012.
http://www.greatwar.co.uk/ypres-salient/town-ieper-lille-gate.htm

Duffy, Michael. "Battles - The Second Battle of Ypres, 1915".firstworldwar.com.N.p., 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 4 Feb. 2012.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ypres2.htm

bij Anouk Fortunier en Daphne van den blink,Boris Theunissen."Ypres Reservoir Cemetery".YouTube.n.p. 28 October 2011.Web. 4 February 2012.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqPL98KX4Ek

Sniper snoop with Cam."Menin Gate". photograph."Menin Gate."Wikipedia.n.p. 7 January 2012. Web. 5 February 2012.

Duffy, Michael. "First World War.com - A Multimedia History of World War One." firstworldwar.com.N.p., 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 4 Feb. 2012.

"Self Drive Tours to the Somme and Ypres". battlefieldtours ltd. n.p.n.d. Web. 5 February 2012.
http://www.battlefield-tours.com/self_drive_tours.htm

"Enjoy Cycling Route Ypres Salient".Toerisme. n.p.n.d.Web. 5 February 2012.
http://www.toerisme-ieper.be/item.php?itemno=323_324_334_376&lang=EN

Richard Jack. The Second Battle of Ypres 22 April to May 25 1915. Canadian War Museum, Ontario. Canadian War Museum.Web. 6 February 2012
http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/guerre/photo-e.aspx?PageId=2&photo=3.D.2.g&f=%2Fcwm%2Fexhibitions%2Fguerre%2Fhistory-fww-e.aspx&fb_source=message

Sasrun5. "PM--Second Battle of Ypres Presentation". YouTube. n.p. 6 October 2009. Web. 6 February 2012.